|Date of birth|
|Function/Grade||Background Taliban in Afghanistan|
|History and Biodata||
The Taliban in Afghanistan are mostly Hanafi Sunni Pashtuns. Taliban, Pashto Ṭālebān (“Students”), also spelled Taleban, ultraconservative political and religious faction that emerged in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s following the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the collapse of Afghanistan’s communist regime, and the subsequent breakdown in civil order. The faction took its name from its membership, which consisted largely of students trained in
The Taliban emerged as a force for social order in 1994 in the southern Afghan province of
World opinion, however, largely disapproved of the Taliban’s social policies—including the near-total exclusion offrom public life (including employment and education), the systematic destruction of non-Islamic artistic relics (as occurred in the town of ), and the implementation of harsh criminal punishments—and only , , and the ever recognized the regime. More significant was the fact that the Taliban allowed Afghanistan to be a haven for Islamic militants from throughout the world, including an exiled Saudi Arabian, , who, as leader of , stood accused of organizing numerous terrorist attacks against American interests. The Taliban’s refusal to extradite bin Laden to the following the attacks on the in and on the outside Washington, D.C., on September 11, 2001, prompted a military confrontation with the United States and allied powers . The Taliban was subsequently driven from power.
Taliban insurgency against U.S. and
Meanwhile, the Taliban’s continuedand the inability of Afghanistan’s central government to exert control throughout the country prompted the central government to seek reconciliation with the Taliban. Officials under Pres. had met informally with Taliban leaders, and the first formal contact was made under Pres. Ahmadzai. The Taliban continued to see the central government as fundamentally , however, and insisted on talks with the foreign power that had installed it: the United States.
The Taliban and the United States began meeting in 2018, with the help of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates, the only countries to have a diplomatic relationship with both parties. The discussions focused on the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan, though the United States hoped to eventually push the Taliban to negotiate with the central government. In July 2019 the discussions included central government officials for the first time, who agreed with representatives of the Taliban on general principles for future reconciliation talks. The Taliban’s representatives were not authorized by the organization to negotiate in an official capacity, but observers considered the meeting a successful icebreaker.
By early September the United States and the Taliban had reportedly come to an agreement in principle and were narrowing in on the details of a signed deal when an attack by the Taliban in Kabul killed a U.S. service member. Days later a secret meeting between top U.S. and Taliban officials was called off by the U.S.; the cancellation was blamed on the attack.
A deal was struck in late February 2020. The Taliban agreed to begin talks with the central government within 10 days of signing the agreement and to prevent